Freckles on Face and Skin
Freckles or ephelis are dark coloured circular spots generally 1mm-2mm in size and are generally caused by the direct exposure to the sun or because of genetic factors. The area exposed to the sun’s ultraviolet rays starts overproducing melanin causing dark little circular patches. Freckles are more common in people with light skin complexion. They typically fade or diminish during winters.
Neurofibromatosis, one of its rare forms, is an inherited disease in which you may develop freckles on the area which are not exposed to the sun. Freckles can be treated with the help of Q-switched lasers or CO2 lasers. It is advised to use sunscreen in order to prevent your skin from developing freckles again and again.
Ephelides, or freckles, are the result of increased photoinduced melanogenesis and transport of an increased number of fully melanized melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes. Ephelides occur on sun‐exposed areas of the body, particularly the face, dorsal hands and upper trunk. They are 1–3‐mm well‐demarcated, hyperpigmented macules that are round, oval or irregular in shape. They may increase in number and distribution and show a tendency for confluence, but they can fade over time with ageing. Ephelides are benign and show no propensity for malignant transformation. Some ephelides may represent a subtype of solar lentigo.
Treatment options for ephelides and lentigines include sun‐protective measures, skin‐lightening agents, cryotherapy and laser surgery.